Saad al-Hariri, who resigned as Lebanon’s prime minister this month while in Saudi Arabia, arrived in Paris on Saturday as part of French mediation efforts aimed at trying to ease tensions across the region.
Hariri’s resignation on November 4 threw Lebanon into political crisis and put it centre-stage in the Middle East’s overarching rivalry between Sunni Saudi Arabia and its allies and a bloc led by Shi’ite Iran.
French President Emmanuel Macron, who welcomed Hariri with a warm embrace at the Elysee Palace for talks and a family lunch, leveraged France’s close relations with both Lebanon and Saudi Arabia to secure a deal that saw Hariri travel to Paris and open the door to a resolution of the crisis.
Hariri, who arrived at his residence in Paris in the early hours of the morning, told Lebanese President Michel Aoun in a phone call from Paris that he would be in Lebanon on Wednesday for Independence Day celebrations, Aoun said on Twitter.
A French presidential source said the two would discuss in detail the reasons behind Hariri’s resignation and how to move ahead in the coming days.
“Lebanon is being shaken so its important Hariri comes to Paris for us to work with him on the best way out of the crisis,” said a senior French diplomat.
“We’re trying to create the conditions for a de-escalation in the region. We want to avoid a proliferation of crises that could get out of control.”
Hariri’s abrupt resignation and continued stay in Saudi Arabia has caused fears for Lebanon’s stability. His visit to France with his family is seen as part of a possible way out of the crisis.
Okab Saqr, a member of parliament for Hariri’s Future Movement, said after Hariri’s visit to France he would have “a small Arab tour” before travelling to Beirut.
The crisis has thrust Lebanon into the regional rivalry pitting Saudi Arabia and its allies against a bloc led by Iran, which includes the heavily armed Lebanese Shi’ite Hezbollah group.
Aoun has called Hariri a Saudi hostage and refused to accept his resignation unless he returns to Lebanon. Saudi Arabia and Hariri say his movements are not restricted.
Lebanon maintains a delicate sectarian balance after Sunnis, Shi’ites, Christians and Druze fought a civil war between 1975 and 1990, with factions often backed by regional rivals.
Hariri, a Sunni Muslim, is a long-time ally of Saudi Arabia. Aoun, a Christian, is a political ally of Hezbollah. Hariri’s government, a power-sharing coalition formed last year, includes Hezbollah.
France, which controlled Lebanon between the world wars, has sought to play a key role in defusing tension with Macron personally getting involved and putting him at the heart of a regional power struggle that will test his diplomatic skills.
That was evident since the outbreak of the Lebanese crisis over the last week with a surprise visit to Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman in Riyadh, followed by a flurry of calls, sending his foreign minister to Saudi Arabia and then the invitation to Hariri, which caught many diplomats unawares.
While undoubtedly a diplomatic coup for Macron, some regional and French diplomats have cautioned that his strategy to try to appease all sides in the region may backfire.
Paris has intensified its rhetoric over Iran’s regional activities. On Thursday, Foreign Minister Jean-Yves Le Drian, speaking alongside his Saudi counterpart, denounced Tehran’s “hegemonic temptations”. Iran responded by accusing France of taking sides and Macron on Friday said Iran should clarify its ballistic missile programme. That was met by a rebuke in Tehran.
On Saturday, Ali Akbar Velayati, a senior adviser to Iran’s supreme leader, said Macron should stay out of its affairs.
Lebanon's Hariri arrives in Paris as Macron plays mediator